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What are the symptoms?

In some people, testicular cancer does not cause any noticeable symptoms, and it may be found during tests for other conditions. When there are symptoms, the most common ones are a swelling or a lump in the testicle (usually painless) and/or a change in a testicle’s size or shape (e.g. hardness or swelling). These symptoms don’t necessarily mean you have testicular cancer. They can be caused by other conditions, such as cysts, which are harmless lumps in the scrotum. If you find any lump, however, it’s important to see your doctor for a check-up.

Occasionally, testicular cancer may cause other symptoms such as a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum; a feeling of unevenness between the testicles; pain or ache in the lower abdomen, testicle or scrotum; enlargement or tenderness of the breast tissue; back pain; or stomach-aches. If you are concerned about any of these symptoms, make an appointment to see your doctor.

Which health professionals will I see?

Your general practitioner (GP) will arrange the first tests to assess your symptoms. If these tests do not rule out cancer, you will usually be referred to a specialist called a urologist. The urologist will arrange further tests. If testicular cancer is diagnosed, the specialist will consider treatment options. Often these will be discussed with other health professionals at what is known as a multidisciplinary team (MDT) meeting. During and after treatment, you will see a range of health professionals who specialise in different aspects of your care.

urologisttreats diseases of the male and female urinary systems and the male reproductive system, including testicular cancer; performs surgery
fertility specialistdiagnoses, treats and manages infertility and reproductive hormonal disorders; may be a reproductive endocrinologist or urologist
medical oncologisttreats cancer with drug therapies such as chemotherapy; supports you through regular check-ups and reviews (surveillance)
radiation oncologisttreats cancer by prescribing and overseeing a course of radiation therapy
nurseadministers drugs and provides care, information and support throughout treatment
cancer care coordinatorcoordinates your care, liaises with other members of the MDT and supports you and your family throughout treatment; care may also be coordinated by a clinical nurse consultant (CNC) or clinical nurse specialist (CNS)
anaesthetistadministers anaesthetic before surgery and monitors you during the operation
psychologist, counsellorhelp you manage your emotional response to diagnosis and treatment
physiotherapist, occupational therapistassist with physical and practical problems, including restoring movement and mobility after treatment and recommending aids and equipment

This information is reviewed by

This information was last reviewed August 2020 by the following expert content reviewers: Prof Declan Murphy, Urologist and Director of Genitourinary Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, VIC; Gregory Bock, Urology Cancer Nurse Coordinator, WA Cancer and Palliative Care Network, North Metropolitan Health Service, WA; A/Prof Nicholas Brook, Senior Consultant Urological Surgeon, Royal Adelaide Hospital and The University of Adelaide, SA; Clinical A/Prof Peter Grimison, Medical Oncologist, Chris O’Brien Lifehouse and The University of Sydney, NSW; Dr Tanya Holt, Senior Radiation Oncologist, Radiation Oncology Princess Alexandra Hospital Raymond Terrace (ROPART), QLD; Brodie Kitson, Consumer; Elizabeth Medhurst, Genitourinary and Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy (SABR) Nurse Consultant, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, VIC; Rosemary Watson, 13 11 20 Consultant, Cancer Council Victoria.