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Staging and prognosis of vaginal cancer


Based on the test results, your doctor will tell you the stage of the cancer. Staging is a way to describe the size of the cancer and whether it has spread from the vagina to other parts of the body.

In Australia, vaginal cancer is usually staged using the staging system from the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO).


stage 1Cancer is found only in the vagina.
stage 2Cancer has begun to spread through the vaginal wall, but has not spread into the wall of the pelvis.
stage 3Cancer has spread to the walls of the pelvis. It may also be in the lymph nodes close to the vagina.
stage 4Cancer has spread beyond the pelvis or into the lining of the bladder or bowel. The cancer may also have spread to distant parts of the body.

Your doctor may also tell you the grade of the cancer cells. This gives you an idea of how quickly the cancer may grow. A low-grade (grade 1) cancer means that the cells are slow growing and less likely to spread. High-grade (grade 3) cells look more abnormal, and are more likely to grow and spread quickly.

Knowing the stage and grade of the cancer helps your health care team recommend the most appropriate treatment for you.


Prognosis means the expected outcome of a disease. You may wish to discuss your prognosis and treatment options with your doctor, but it is not possible for anyone to predict the exact course of the disease. Instead, your doctor can give you an idea about the general prognosis for people with the same type and stage of vaginal cancer.

Some people with vaginal cancer may want to know the statistics for people in similar situations, while others may not find the numbers helpful. Do what feels right for you.

In most cases, the earlier vaginal cancer is diagnosed, the better the chances of successful treatment. Test results, the type of vaginal cancer you have, the rate and depth of tumour growth, how well you respond to treatment and other factors (such as age, fitness and medical history) are all important in assessing your prognosis.

You will have regular check-ups to see whether the cancer has responded to treatment.

Featured resource

Understanding Vulvar and Vaginal Cancers

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This information is reviewed by

This information was last reviewed October 2020 by the following expert content reviewers: A/Prof Alison Brand, Director, Gynaecological Oncology, Westmead Hospital, NSW; Ellen Barlow, Clinical Nurse Consultant, Royal Hospital for Women, NSW; Jane Conroy-Wright, Consumer; Rebecca James, 13 11 20 Consultant, Cancer Council SA; Suparna Karpe, Clinical Psychologist, Gynaecological Oncology, Westmead Hospital, NSW; Dr Pearly Khaw, Consultant Radiation Oncologist, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, VIC; Sally McCoull, Consumer; A/Prof Orla McNally, Gynaecological Oncologist and Director, Oncology/Dysplasia, The Royal Women’s Hospital, and Director, Gynaecology Tumour Stream, Victorian Comprehensive Cancer Centre, VIC; Haley McNamara, Social Worker and Project Manager, Care at End of Life Project, Queensland Health, QLD; Tamara Wraith, Senior Clinician – Physiotherapy, The Royal Women’s Hospital, VIC.