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The testicles

The testicles are two oval glands that sit behind the penis in a pouch of skin called the scrotum. They are part of the male reproductive system and are also called testes (or a testis, if referring to one).

Role of the testicles – The testicles produce and store sperm. They also produce the sex hormone testosterone, which is responsible for the development of male characteristics, such as facial hair, a deeper voice and increased muscle mass, as well as sexual drive (libido).

Epididymis, spermatic cord and vas deferens – A tightly coiled tube at the back of each testicle called the epididymis stores immature sperm. The epididymis connects the testicle to the spermatic cord. The spermatic cord runs through the groin region into the pelvis and contains blood vessels, nerves, lymph vessels and a tube called the vas deferens. The vas deferens carries sperm from the epididymis to the prostate gland.

Seminal vesicles and prostate gland – Two small glands called seminal vesicles sit above the prostate gland. The seminal vesicles and prostate gland produce fluids that make up a large part of semen. Semen also contains sperm from the testicles and is ejaculated from the penis during sexual climax.

Lymph nodes and vessels – There are many lymph nodes (also called lymph glands) and lymph vessels around the testicles and in the abdomen. These are part of the lymphatic system and are important for resisting and fighting disease (immunity). The nodes and vessels also drain lymphatic fluid (lymph) from the tissues back into the bloodstream.

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This information is reviewed by

This information was last reviewed August 2020 by the following expert content reviewers: Prof Declan Murphy, Urologist and Director of Genitourinary Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, VIC; Gregory Bock, Urology Cancer Nurse Coordinator, WA Cancer and Palliative Care Network, North Metropolitan Health Service, WA; A/Prof Nicholas Brook, Senior Consultant Urological Surgeon, Royal Adelaide Hospital and The University of Adelaide, SA; Clinical A/Prof Peter Grimison, Medical Oncologist, Chris O’Brien Lifehouse and The University of Sydney, NSW; Dr Tanya Holt, Senior Radiation Oncologist, Radiation Oncology Princess Alexandra Hospital Raymond Terrace (ROPART), QLD; Brodie Kitson, Consumer; Elizabeth Medhurst, Genitourinary and Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy (SABR) Nurse Consultant, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, VIC; Rosemary Watson, 13 11 20 Consultant, Cancer Council Victoria.